The simplified universal adult BLS algorithm has been created (Figure 2).
• Refinements have been made to recommendations for immediate recognition and activation of the emergency response system based on signs of unresponsiveness, as well as initiation of CPR if the victim is unresponsive with no breathing or no normal breathing (ie, victim is only gasping).
• “Look, listen, and feel for breathing” has been removed from the algorithm.
• Continued emphasis has been placed on high-quality CPR (with chest compressions of adequate rate and depth, allowing complete chest recoil after each compression, minimizing interruptions in compressions, and avoiding excessive ventilation).
• There has been a change in the recommended sequence for the lone rescuer to initiate chest compressions before giving rescue breaths (C-A-B rather than A-B-C). The lone rescuer should begin CPR with 30 compressions rather than 2 ventilations to reduce delay to first compression.
• Compression rate should be at least 100/min (rather than “approximately” 100/min).
• Compression depth for adults has been changed from the range of 11⁄2 to 2 inches to at least 2 inches (5 cm).